The International Energy Agency (IEA) warned days before the finalization of the 2011: “The Earth is moving towards an unsustainable energy future, unless urgent measures are taken to optimize the resources available.”
Scientists and agency experts predict an increase of one third of energy demand over the next 25 years, forcing nations to make investments to avoid shortages of basic resources and increase dangerous emissions that contribute to global warming.
“The time is running out, but you can still take action. If there is no investment and a global commitment to the environment binding, with the current infrastructure (factories, cars and gasoline-driven public transport), emissions of greenhouse gases that would be allowed through 2035 for the average global temperature does not rise above two degrees and avoid a global tragedy, will be exhausted in 2017,” they said.
For this a little bit cloudy future, and facing an energy crisis that is approaching inevitably, the United Nations (UN) declared 2012 as the year of green energy or sustainable.
It means that the wind, sun and heat that comes from the center of the earth to become the primary sources worldwide.
Today, only 19 percent of world energy is renewable. But according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), it should meet 80 percent of global needs by 2050.
The International Renewable Energy Agency (Irena) said that the development of the renewable energy sector is inevitable, and it should play a role in sustainability.
The idea is that its use can multiply by 20. Here we meet two reasons: take advantage of those resources seem inexhaustible as the sun’s power, which may be exhausted within 5,000 years, and that humanity receives free, and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases today are produced by burning fossil fuels to heat homes, such as oil or coal.
In addition, optimal use of water, which, as in Colombia, is used to ignite the bulbs most major cities and through dams increasingly questioned because of its impact on ecosystems.
For Domingo Guinea, the National Research Council of Spain, the most urgent task to accomplish these objectives is that the energy and water are transformed into a public service and are increasingly a source of financial gain.
“At the moment it is no longer used only as a channel to generate profits, there will be a clear possibility of self-sufficiency in much of the planet.”
Guinea says sustainable energy used by our ancestors and the rather more common sense, no need to waste energy from fossil materials, such as electricity. “We’ve been rich and be rich and we continue to squander squandered everything we can.”
However, for the UN, things are going well. Today, China has overtaken the U.S. in renewable energy investments. American investors led the ranking until last year, when the Asian giant nearly doubled the amount spent on the construction of specialized facilities to produce clean energy versus $ 34,600 million to 18,600 million U.S., according to the NGO Pew Charitable Trusts.
This nation invests more in 148 percent renewable in 2005. Another country that stands out in its environmental awareness is Turkey, which invests 178 percent over five years ago. In Europe, meanwhile, more than 20,000 offshore wind farms under construction.
In Colombia there are efforts in wind energy in the Alta Guajira, where Empresas Públicas de Medellín (EPM) launched the first wind farm, Jepirachi, with 15 wind turbines that provide 19.5 megawatts to the national grid. There is research to generate energy from biomass, and in this case, sugar cane bagasse in Santanderes, the Eastern Plains and the Atlantic coast. As with the waves, to produce 30 gigawatts by 3,000 kilometers of coastline.
Also detected the possibility of producing electricity with geothermal energy. This energy is pollution-free, but it costs two to three times more than normal and is limited to areas of tectonic activity. Geothermal Atlas of Colombia indicates that there are possibilities to have it from the Chiles volcano, Cerro Black and Azufral (Nariño) in Nevados National Park and the Geothermal Area Paipa-Iza (Boyaca).
Also in the Nevado del Ruiz. Studies by the University, this mountain is characterized by explosive eruptions periodically and have multiple layers of hardened lava (pyroclastic) and volcanic ash. The exploration phase will begin this year with the drilling of five wells with depths of 2 to 3 kilometers (each with an estimated cost of $ 5 million). If you check the existence of the resource, the production wells drilled and water reinjection at the end of 2013. The next step will be building a plant to generate electricity, which would be operated by Isagen, possibly from 2013.
These local efforts have led in recent years has increased investment in renewable ‘green’ all over the globe. Between 2004 and 2009, renewable energy capacity grew by 10 to 60 percent. And while in 2005 only 55 countries promoted in 2010 that number increased to 100.
According to the IEA, between now and 2035 would require a global investment of 38 billion dollars in infrastructure to meet growing energy demand, of which 90 percent come from countries like China and India. But everything will depend on the balance in the grants management change and these are reduced to fossil fuels (400,000 million dollars a year). Greenpeace accounts make clear the way: “With just redirect all subsidies for fossil fuels to renewable energy programs, the 2,000 million poor people have access to energy, not 2030, but in this decade.”