Wind power, for wind energy has been used by man since time immemorial; examples are mills for grinding grain processing and sailing. Travel discoverers of the fifteenth century onwards were made possible by this energy.
This energy is without doubt one of the renewable sources has increased more in percentage terms in the world. The installed capacity has increased from 10 gigawatts (GW) in 1996 to 158 GW in 2009.
The five countries with the largest installed capacity are the United States, China, Germany, Spain and India. The expansion of wind power in China in 2009 is approximately the total installed capacity in Colombia, about 13 GW.
In fact, in several countries, the contribution of wind energy in the energy matrix is significant, as is the case in Denmark, with 20% and Spain, with 15%. Small wind turbines are also emerging in the residential sector distributed generation projects connected to the network presents an interesting development, especially in the U.S. and the UK.
It has been showing a significant reduction of investment costs in wind technology (between 1,500 and 1,800 U.S. $ / kW installed), despite the high demand for wind turbines in the world.
At the regional level, Latin America and the Caribbean, is installed wind capacity of 1,254 MW (according to the Global Wind 2009 Report), doubling the installed capacity in 2008 was 650 MW. Five countries have invested heavily in wind generation parks: Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The greatest expansion occurred in Brazil, but the highest relative incorporation occurred in Nicaragua, Chile and Mexico.
In Colombia, according to studies and information from Atlas Ideam winds and Upme (2006), the energy potential is estimated between 20,000 and 35,000 MW in regions such as La Guajira, Santanderes, Boyacá (Gachaneca and Villa de Leiva) , Huila (Legiosa), Tolima, Cauca and San Andres Island. While the country’s energy is clean, since over 70% of the power generated is for hydroelectric generation, it is clear that the other potential is not negligible.
Currently, there is less development in La Guajira Jepirachi the wind farm with a capacity of 19.5 MW, carried out by Empresas Publicas de Medellin-based EPM March 2004. Are testing new wind projects, the largest wind farm feasibility is Jouktai, with a capacity of 32 MW in La Guajira, by Isagen and which has an environmental license in January 2010.
The new provision of electric service in San Andres Island by weighing, as one of contractual commitments, is the installation of a 7-MW wind farm, which is a feasibility study to select the best alternative for location.
The wind resource in Colombia is also important because energy has a seasonal complementarity with hydropower, because in the period from December to April when the dry season hydrological features, is when you have more presence and develop more wind velocities in the Guajira and other areas of the Caribbean region, which has been endorsed by the Upme in his study of the Development Plan for Non-Conventional Energy Sources.
Therefore, it is essential to the development and cost reduction, plus appropriate tax incentives, environmental and regulatory. The most important tax incentive was set out in the tax reform of 2002 (Act 788) which allowed the exemption of income for 15 years from the sale of electrical energy generated from wind, biomass and agricultural residues, as long as the acquisition or sale of certified emission reductions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is carried out within the terms of the Kyoto Protocol and reversed 50% of revenue for this concept in social welfare work.
Also exempt from VAT the import of machinery and equipment for the development of projects or activities that are exporters of certified emission reductions and carbon emissions that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Additionally, after the issuance of Law 697 of 2001, he joined the Non-Conventional Energy Sources-FNCE-as part of the National Rational and Efficient Use of Energy (PROURE) as a matter of social, public and national interest. Recently, in June 2010, a milestone in the development of policy, the MME established an indicative Action Plan for the PROURE 2015, establishing a participation goal of 3.5% of the FNCE in electricity production mix , that in order to fulfill it is expected that a good part of the expansion is projected to wind farms.
In countries like Spain, Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica were created special conditions and market rules to encourage or even subsidize the capital cost of premiums for the entry of these projects.
In Colombia, however, is pretending to go counter to this global trend, and legislative initiatives as it seeks to impose the burden of environmental transfers of Act 99 of these projects, with the consequent impact on their higher cost of generation.
Projects currently being carried out in Colombia have only been able to close financially by applying the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol or the voluntary emission reductions.
Given the significant energy benefits, environmental and social, is expected to develop the conditions in energy policy, industry regulation without distorting the rules of the Wholesale Energy Market, which is supplemented by technical regulations being developed by the Icontec and offer options financial, for example, through international resources of the carbon market, that encourage investment and operation of wind energy projects in Colombia.
Otherwise, it would simply be to establish a legal barrier, which becomes natural to literally do not pass wind and have no wind power projects in the country.
Electric vehicle with lithium batteries do not emit CO2 or damage the environment if the electricity comes from renewables such as wind, solar photovoltaic and solar thermal or thermal. Wind turbines can supply electricity to electric vehicles in the future will also serve to store and regulate the electricity intermittent wind energy sector.